Organization of Speeches

I. Organizational Patterns:

A. Topical Division - organizes a speech according to aspects, subtopics, or topics.

B. Chronological Division- organizes speech according to a time sequence.

Historical Topics, Process or procedure topics (how to cook, paint)

C. Spatial Division - organizes a speech according to the geography or physical structure of the subject. Best for topic dealing with parts of an object (i.e. the parts of a gun), or a place (Grocery Store, Museum)).

D. Causal Division - Organizes a speech from cause to effect, or effect to cause.

Identify / Trace an a condition from its causes (i.e. recession, medical topic disease) Also useful in persuasion

E. Pro-Con Division - organizes a speech according to arguments for and against some policy, position, or action. Since it is balanced approach - easier to use in informative than persuasion . Broader context and provides more balance/objectivity. ex. used in policy options / political choices / May be useful in workplace setting.

F. Gimmick Division - Organizes a speech according to a special memory device, such as alliteration, rhyme, or initial letters that spell a word. ex. IRS

G. Problem Solution Pattern - A pattern of organization that analyzes a problem in terms of 1. harm, 2. significance, 3. cause; ant that proposes a solution which is 1. Described 2. feasible, and 3. advantageous. Identifies and analyzes a problem and proposes a solution.

II. How to Develop Key Ideas. -

A. Signpost- words that indicate that you are going to make a point - initially, finally, next. (Give directions)

B. State your idea - word precisely (Tag)

C. Support your idea

D. Summarize your idea

III. Organizing the Body of the Speech- How to organize body of a speech-

A. Main points - how to break down and decide

1. 2-5 main points / 3 = best / Simplicity

2. 1 major idea per point

3. Symmetry

a. body should be longest part

b. points should be balanced in respect to time

c. intro and conclusion should be about the same length

4. Coherence- make sure the points relate to each other / conclusion ties back into the intro.

5. Orderliness - need a consistent pattern of development. (i.e. problem then solution, chronological start at beginning and go to end / don't jump around.) org structure

B. Sub points - how to break down main points into more specific areas. Makes speech more developed and organized.

1. 2-4 subpoints

2. 1 idea per subpoint

3. balance time

4. follow a clear development

C. Support materials - narrative, definitions, descriptions, comparison, examples, ets

1. Make sure they really support main point

2. Supporting material must be specific.

D. Connectives or Transitions:

1. Internal transitions - connects 2 main points

summary of last point and preview of next point

now that I have, I will

2. Internal preview- list subpoints at beginning of main point

cats are clean for three reasons; litter box, bathing, dry food

3. Internal summary - restate subpoints at end of a main point

IE: it was seen that cats are clean because the use a litter box, bathe frequently and eat dry food.

4. Sign posts - mini transitions between subpoints

E. Types of Transitions: transition - a statement that connects parts of the speech and indicates the nature of their connection.

Complementary - adds one idea on to another, also, and , next, in addition to

Causal - establishes a cause effect relationship between two ideas; consequently, resulting in, because

Contrasting - shows how two ideas are different; but, although, on the other hand

Chronological Transitions - shows how one idea proceeds or follows another in time: next, further, then

IV. Functions of an Outline-

A. Tests the scope of a speaker's content

B. Tests the logical relations among parts of the speech

C. Tests relevance of supporting ideas.

D. Checks balance of proportion of speech

E. Serves as notes during delivery of speech.

V. Types of an Outline-

A. Word

B. Phrase

C. Sentence

Coordinate Ideas - (main points)

Subordinate ideas - (subpoints) Must have at least 2 for each main point.

Outlining guidelines

1. Each number or letter should represent only 1 idea.

2. Should use consistent numbers and letters.

3. If there is a subpoint there must be at least 2.

4. Should use a complete sentence/ phrase/ word depending on outline.

5. Coordinate points should have parallel grammatical construction.

VI. Stages of outlines:

Working outline: An informal, initial outline recording a speaker's process of narrowing focusing, and balancing a topic. Make lists / sublists / piles/ etc- break it down

Formal outline - A complete sentence outline written in sufficient detail that a person other than the speaker can understand it.

Speaking outline- A brief outline for the speaker containing source citations and delivery complete

Hints for notecard outline

1. Don't write word for word/ use key words/ be brief

2. Use a well organized outline

3. Don't write too small

4. Use different colored pens or highlighters to set apart points, organize tags

5. draw lines between main points

VII. OUTLINE OF A SPEECH

I. Introduction

A. Opener Or Attention Getter

B. Significance of topic

C. Up-to-date (is it recent) topic

D. Relevance to Audience or Audience link

E. Thesis and Preview

II. Body

A. Main Point One

(Internal preview)

1. Sub-point 1

a. Support material

b. Support material

(sign post)

2. Sub-point 2

a. Support material

b. Support material

(sign post)

3. Sub-point 3

a. Support material

b. Support material

(internal summary)

(INTERNAL TRANSITION)

B. Main Point Two

(Internal preview)

1. Sub-point 1

a. Support material

b. Support material

(sign post)

2. Sub-point 2

a. Support material

b. Support material

(sign post)

3. Sub-point 3

a. Support material

b. Support material

(internal summary)

(INTERNAL TRANSITION)

C. Main Point Three

(Internal preview)

1. Sub-point 1

a. Support material

b. Support material

(sign post)

2. Sub-point 2

a. Support material

b. Support material

(sign post)

3. Sub-point 3

a. Support material

b. Support material

(internal summary)

III. Conclusion

A. Summary of topic and what we learned

B. Review the three main points.

C. Return to attention catcher for your exit

Outline/Organization Activity

1. Read over all of the information in your envelopes. Based on the given specific purpose thesis, construct an outline for the body of this speech by doing the following.

A. Select three main points from the given choices.

B. Select two sub-points from the given choices.

C. Choose the general support matrerial from the given list that will appropriately support each main point.

D. Be sure to include the appropriate connectives needed to tie the speech together.