Chapter 2 Sections 11-12, section
- Acids and Bases (4.5)
- Acids - molecules that
can lose H+ (proton donors) in water making H3O+(aq) in
water. Note H+(aq) is really just short hand for H3O+(aq). Also note that (aq)
means dissolved and surrounded by water. If there are H+(aq) ions called hydronium
ions present, then the solution is acidic.
- Know these
acids: HCl, HNO3 and H2SO4.
Hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric.
- Reactions looks like
this: HCl(g) +H2O(l) g H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
- Remember people that
take acid are losers - so acids LOSE H+
- Bases - molecules than
can gain H+ (proton acceptors) and/or make OH- in
water. If there are OH-(aq)
ions present called hydroxide ions, then the solution is basic.
- Know these
bases: NaOH, KOH, Ba(OH)2
which are all solids
- Reactions looks like
this when put in water: NaOH(s) g Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)
- Why are these
dissolving in water in the first place? Well because the sum of all the ion-dipole forces created by having the ions
surrounded by water are greater than the original ionic or
covalent bond. Not all acids and bases dissolve in water so easily!
You'll learn a lot more in second semester.
- Nomenclature (section 2.11-12) SUPER IMPORTANT
- Ionic Compounds
- Why do they form in
the first place? Well remember that each atom's goal is to be s2p6
and to get there they must lose or gain electrons
(except the Noble Gases) and then they are cations
or anions with an oxidation state. Review it
- You MUST be able to
put ionic formulas together so that the charges sum to zero. Practice is below this outline. DO IT!
- name of metal cation + name of nonmetal anion + ide
- NH4Cl -
- CaCO3 -
- NaOH - sodium hydroxide
- MgO - magnesium oxide
- Li3P -
- Na2S -
- magnesium phosphate
- sodium sulfate
- Variable charge metal
- name of transition
metal, (charge in Roman numerals) + name of nonmetal + ide
- Why the Roman
numeral? Well the oxidation state of most transition metals varies
- so we have to indicate what it is.
- iron(III) oxide
- AgCl - silver(I) chloride
- CuS - copper(II) sulfide
- cobalt(III) nitrate
- FeSO4 -
- Zn(OH)2 -
- iron(III) flouride - FeF3
- iron(II) phosphate -
at examples 2.11 and 2.12. Try problems 2.21 - 2.23.
- Remember you are
supposed to know all these atom's names: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F,
Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co,
Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Kr, Sr, Ag, Sn, I, Ba, Au, Hg, Pb and U IMPORTANT
- Hey - Ag is
always +1, Zinc and Cadmium are always +2 so you don't need to use a
Roman Numeral with them: AgCl is silver
chloride, Zinc fluoride is ZnF2, Ag2S is silver
- Covalent Compounds
- prefix name of least
electronegative nonmetal + prefix name of most electronegative nonmetal
- prefixes are mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa (mono is ommitted
from the first element)
- CO2 -
- CO - carbon monoxide
- PCl5 -
- SF4 -
- diphosphorus pentoxide
- SiO2 -
- dihydrogen dioxide
- nitrogen monoxide -
- carbon tetrachloride
- nitrogen trihydride - NH3
- iodine heptaflouride - IF7
at example 2.13. Try problems 2.24 and 2.25
- Ionic compounds with
- treat polyatomic ions
as groups that always stay together
- never change the name
of the polyatomic ion, otherwise name as ionic compounds
- Memorize these:
CN-, HCO3-, OH-,
MnO4-, NO2-, NO3-,
CO32-, SO42-, SO32-,
PO43- Find their names in Table 2.3. IMPORTANT
- NaOH is sodium hydroxide,
Ca(NO3)2 is calcium nitrate, MgSO4 is
- ammonium sulfide is
(NH4)2 S, calcium carbonate is CaCO3,
magnesium phosphate is Mg3(PO4)2
- Oxoanions - different numbers of
- Know hypochlorite,
chlorite, chlorate, perchlorate
- Try example 2.14 and
2.15. Try problems 2.27-29.
- Know hypochlorous, chlorous, chloric, and perchloric
- Know nitrous and
Final Notes - At this point in time you should be able to:
- Given any covalent molecule, name the molecule.
- Given any group 1 or 2 metal, and a nonmetal, you
should be able to predict the formula of the resulting ionic compound,
know the oxidation states on the ions, and name the compound.
- Be able to name a transition metal compound.
- Predict the most common oxidation state for the ions
the following elements form: Li, S, Cs, Al, Br, N, Mg, K, P, Bi, F,
Ne, Ba, Pb,
- How many electrons total do the noble gases have?
- What will the following atoms do in order to be like a
noble gas? Ga, F, I, Be, K
- Predict the ionic compound formulas for the following
pairs of elements. (Assume they can make an ionic compound) Li
and Cl, K and S, Na and P, Mg and Br, Ca and S, Ba and N, Al and F, Ga and
O, In and P, Pb and F, Pb
and O, Bi and Cl, Bi and S, Po and F
- What makes the noble gases so stable?
- What is the difference between an ionic and covalent
- If an atom has more protons than electrons what is it
- Ionic compounds are held together by ionic bonds which
are basically ____________ attractions between ions.
- Name all the elements that form covalent bonds with
themselves and give their formulas.
- Why does hydrogen occur naturally as H2?
- Name the following ionic compounds: KI, AlBr3,
MgSO4, Na3PO4, LiCH3COOH,
Fe(CN)2, Ni(HCO3)3, KOH
- Give the chemical formulas for the following ionic
compounds: calcium nitrate, lithium iodide, sodium carbonate,
- Name the following covalent compounds: CO, PI5,
- Write chemical formulas for the following covalent
compounds: nitrogen trihydride, silicon tetrabromide, sulfur dihydride
- Name the following compounds: KNO3, N2O5
NaBr, PH3, MgS,
Ca(OH)2, CS2, NH4I, LiF,
- Write chemical formulas for the following: dihydrogen disulfide, lithium nitride, calcium phosphide, nitrogen tribromide,
magnesium nitride, sodium iodide, sulfur tetrahydride,
potassium phosphate, silver permanganate, zinc nitrite, sodium sulfite
- Li is +1, S is -2, Cs is +1, Al is +3, Br is -1, N is
-3, Mg is +2, K is +1, P is -3, Bi is +5, F is -1, Ne does not make ions, Ba is +2, Pb is +4, As is +5
or -3, Te is +6 or -2.
- 2, 10, 18, 36, 54 and 86.
- Ga will lose 3 electrons
to become Ga+3, F will gain one electron to become F-,
I will gain one electron to become I-, Be
will lose two electrons to become Be+2, K will lose one
electron to become K+.
- Li and Cl make LiCl, K and S make K2S, Na and P make Na3P,
Mg and Br make MgBr2, Ca and S make CaS,
Ba and N make Ba3N2 (Ba is +2 and N is -3 so we need three Ba's to make +6 and we need two N's to make -6 because
+6-6 = 0), Al and F make AlF3, Ga and
O make Ga2O3, In and P make InP,
Pb and F make PbF4, Pb and O make PbO2, Bi and Cl make BiCl5, Bi and S make Bi2S5
(S is -2 while Bi is either +5 or -3. Since S is already negative,
Bi must be positive. We need five S's to make -10 and we need 2 Bi's
to make +10), Po and F make PoF6 (Here Po will be +6 instead of
-2 since it is bonding with F which is negative)
- The have full outer s and p
subshells = 8 electrons. Except helium
which just has the full 1s with 2 electrons.
- An ionic bond involves the transfer of electrons from a
metal to a nonmetal. A covalent bond involves the sharing of
electrons between 2 or more nonmetals.
- hydrogen occurs naturally as H2, Nitrogen
occurs naturally as N2, Oxygen as O2, Fluorine as F2,
Chlorine as Cl2, Bromine as Br2, Iodine as I2,
and just for fun Phosphorus as P4, Sulfur as S8 and
Selenium as Se8
- Each hydrogen atom has only one electron so it is not
stable. H wants to have 2 electrons to be like helium. If two
H atoms come together they can share their electrons so that each H then
has 2 electrons. So then each H is stable and like a noble
gas. H : H
- potassium iodide, aluminum bromide, magnesium sulfate,
sodium phosphate, lithium acetate, iron(II) cyanide, nickel(III)
bicarbonate, potassium hydroxide
- Ca(NO3)2, LiI,
- carbon monoxide, phosphorus pentaiodide,
iodine heptafluoride, silicon tetrafluoride
- NH3, SiBr4, SH2
- potassium nitrate, dinitrogen
pentoxide, sodium bromide, phosphorus trihydride, magnesium sulfide, calcium hydroxide,
carbon disulfide, ammonium iodide, lithium flouride,
ammonium carbonate, phosphorus pentachloride
- H2S2, Li3N, Ca3P2,
NBr3, Mg3N2, NaI,
SH4, K3PO4, AgMnO4, Zn(NO2)2,
We have now finished Chapter 2
completely. Study Hard.
Recommended problems: 102, 106,