Worksheet V:  Answers

1.  Possess Chlorophylls a and b./Possess a cell wall of cellulose./Form a cell plate during cell division./Most are multicellular and all are eukaryotic, photoautotrophs.
2. Algae including the Charophyceans-Bryophytes-Tracheophytes.
3. Dessication/Absorption of nutrients from the soil./No support structures.
4. Rich supply of CO2./No competitors./Little predation from herbivores./Quality of light increased.
5.  a. Bryophyta         g. Anthophyta       m. Coniferophyta
     b. Anthophyta       h. Anthophyta       n. Chlorophyta
     c. Coniferophyta   i. Coniferophyta   o. Anthophyta
     d. Chlorophyta       j. Pterophyta       p. Chlorophyta
     e. Pterophyta         k. Pterophyta       q. Bryophyta
     f. Anthophyta        l. Bryophyta        r. Coniferophyta
                                                              s. Charophyceans
 
6.  a. gametophyte    c. sporophyte   e. gametophyte
     b. mitosis            d. meiosis        f. sporophyte
7.  They have chlorophylls a and b./Cell division uses a cell plate./They have a cell wall of cellulose./some even exhibit a true alternation of multicellular gametophyte and sporophyte generations.
8.  a. Chlamydomonas    b. Volvox      c. Division of Labor
 
9.  a.  filamentous                         i. meiosis
     b. alternation of generation    j. zoospores
     c. gametophyte                         k. mitotically
     d. sporophyte                         l. holdfast
     e. mitosis                              m. filament
     f. haploid                              n. gametophyte
     g. Chlamydomonas             o. sporophyte
     h. zygote                              p. multicellular
10. Mosses, Liverworts, and Hornworts
11.    a. antheridium     c. archegonium
         b. sperm              d. egg

12.   a. gametophyte   d. seta        g. haploid
        b. sporophyte     e. capsule   h. spores
        c. rhizoids            f. meiosis

13. water
14. Usually by the wind.
15. It looks like a filamentous algae.
16. Photosynthetic/Important food source in higher latitudes./Important in early stages of succession-converts rock to soil and retains moisture.
17. Spagnum is an important soil conditioner gardens and terraria/Peat is burned for fuel./It was once used for treating wounds./Shipping material.
18. Boston Ferns, Tree Ferns, etc.
19. They possess tracheids which are water transporting cells.
20. Xylem and Phloem

21.  a. frond      d. diploid
      b. veins      e. sporophyte
      c. fiddlehead

22.  a. sporangia      h. archegonium
      b. sori               i. sperm
      c. spores          j. eggs
      d. haploid          k. diploid
      e. mitotically      l. sporophyte
      f. thallus (prothallus)     m. nutritionally-dependent
      g. antheridium

23. Photosynthetic/Food source/Shelter/etc.
24. Shelter in some areas./Fiddleheads are eaten./Decorative and house plant industry.
25. Pines, Spruces, Firs, Junipers, etc.
26. Cone/Needle-like leaves/A naked seed (=gymnosperms).

27.  a. pistillate (ovulate)    c. staminate (= pollen cone)
      b. smaller

28.  a. microspores     c. gametophyte
      b. meiosis      d. pollen grains

29.  a. diploid      d. megaspore
      b. meiosis      e.gametophyte
      c. 3       f. egg

30.  a. Pollination     b. fertilization
31. Wind
32. Food/Shelter/Photosynthesis-oxygen/etc.

33. Shelter for homes/wood for furniture and etc./Turpentine is formed from./Rosin./etc.

34. The gametophyte generation is dominant in the algae and bryophytes and becomes progressively less conspicuous in the ferns, conifers, and flowering plants.

35. In animals, meiosis results in the formation of haploid eggs in the female and haploid sperm in the male.  A sperm fertilizes an egg and forms the diploid zygote.  The zygote divides by mitosis to form the mature animal.
 In plants, meiosis results in the formation of haploid spores.  The spores divide by mitosis to form a gametophyte stage; usually a male stage and a female stage.  The haploid gametophyte stage divides by mitosis to form gametes an these gametes, sperm and egg, unite to form a zygote. The zygote divides by mitosis to form the sporophyte stage.
36. Gametophyte translates gamete producing plant while sporophyte translates spore producing plant.  Gametes are always haploid egg and sperm.  In plants, the gametes are formed by mitosis, not meiosis, since the gametophyte stage is already haploid.  Spores are always haploid and the sporophyte stage is always diploid.  Therefore, spores are formed by meiosis.

37.  rosette shaped cellulose-synthesizing complexes/Enzymes in peroxisomes are similar/Sperm ultrastructure are similar/cell plate is most alike between these groups.
 
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