Integumentary System Worksheet

1. List 6 functions of the skin.
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2. The skin is composed of two distinct regions. Name them.
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3. The layer that anchors the skin to underlying organs and is composed of loose areolar and adipose tissue is called the:       _____________________________
4. What type of epithelium is the epidermis?   _____________________________
5. Name four distinct cell types found in the epidermis.
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6. Use the cell types you listed in question 5 for  the descriptions listed below.
     a. Cells that make keratin.     _____________________________
     b. Held together by desmosomes.   _____________________________
     c. A macrophage.      _____________________________
     d. Cells that make melanin.    _____________________________
     e. Little more than plasma membranes containing keratin. ____________________________
     f. Touch receptors.      _____________________________
     g. Make up ~25 % of the cells found in the stratum basale. ____________________________
7. Separation of the epidermis and dermis is the cause of a(n): _____________________________
8. An excessive thickening of the epidermis is called a(n): _____________________________
9. List the 5 strata of the epidermis from outermost to innermost. _____________________________
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10. Which stratum of the epidermis or layer of the dermis is described by the statements below?
     a. Contain dermal papillae.    _____________________________
     b. Area of rapidly dividing keratinocytes.   _____________________________
      c. Cells are plasma membranes filled with keratin.  _____________________________
     d. Most melanocytes are found here.   _____________________________
     e. Langerhans cells abundant here.   _____________________________
     f.  20-40 cell layers thick; cells dead.   _____________________________
     g. Keratinocytes are spiny and flattened.   _____________________________
     h. Dense irregular connective tissue.   _____________________________
     i. A clear translucent layer.     _____________________________
     j. Found only on the palms and soles.   _____________________________
     k. Single row of cuboidally shaped cells.   _____________________________
     l.  Stratum where keratinization begins.   _____________________________
     m. Keratohyalin present.     _____________________________
     n.  A loose connective tissue with many blood vessels. _____________________________
     o.  Fingerprints caused by foldings in this layer.  _____________________________
     p. Cleavage lines found here.    _____________________________
 

11. Name 4 structures that are epidermal derivatives.
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12. List 3 functions of hair.
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13. Name the 2 main parts of a hair.
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14. A hair in cross-section is composed of 3 concentric layers of keratinized cells.  From outermost to innermost they are:
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15. Identify the part of a hair or associated structure based on the descriptions given below.
     a. Expanded deep end of a hair.    _____________________________
     b. Nipple-like region of dermis containing capillaries. _____________________________
     c. Part of the hair below the skin's surface.  _____________________________
     d. Part of the hair above the skin's surface.  _____________________________
     e. The epidermal layer surrounding the hair that extends
     down into the dermis or even hypodermis.  _____________________________
     f. Bundles of smooth muscle cells that cause hair to stand
     erect from their normal angled position.   _____________________________
16. A scalelike modification of the epidermis where skin cells are heavily keratinized is the:
         _____________________________
17. Sweat glands are also called:     _____________________________
18. Name 3 areas of the body without sweat glands.
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19. Name 2 general kinds of sweat glands.
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20. Name 7 chemicals found in sweat.
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21. Based on the description below  identify the gland as eccrine, apocrine, or holocrine.
     a. Most common type of sweat gland.   _____________________________
     b. Duct reaches surface.     _____________________________
     c. Duct does not come to surface.   _____________________________
     d. Gland ruptures to release contents.   _____________________________
     e. Axillary and anogenital location.   _____________________________
     f.  Sebaceous glands are of this kind.   _____________________________
     g. Thermoregulation function.     _____________________________
     h. May be sexual scent glands of mammals.  _____________________________
     i. Responsible for body odor.     _____________________________
     j. Responsible for pimples.     _____________________________
     k. Most abundant on palms, soles, and forehead.  _____________________________
     l.  All over body except palms and soles.   _____________________________
     m. Stimulated by sex hormones.    _____________________________
     n. Lubricates hair and skin, also bactericidal.  _____________________________

22. Name 3 pigments responsible for skin color.
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23. This chemical is a polymer of the amino acid tyrosine.  _____________________________
24. Melanin is made by ___________________ and transferred to _________________________.
25. List 3 damaging effects excessive exposure to the sun has on the skin.
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26. Identify the skin pigment based on the descriptions given below.
     a. Most important in skin color.     _____________________________
     b. Causes skin to be pink in light-skinned races.  _____________________________
     c. Yellow to orange pigment found mainly in stratum
     corneum and fat of hypodermis.    _____________________________
     d. Most obvious on soles and palms where stratum
     corneum is thickest.      _____________________________
     e. Very abundant in Oriental races.   _____________________________
27. What causes a callus? _________________________________________________________
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28. What causes a blister?_________________________________________________________
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29. What causes a tan?  _________________________________________________________
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30. Keratinocytes do not make melanin, yet they are rich with this substance during the tanning process.  Explain.        ___________________________________________________________
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 31. Do dark-skinned races have more melanocytes than light-skinned races?  Explain. ___________
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32. What causes a pimple? ________________________________________________________
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33. What causes body odor? _______________________________________________________
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